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Extramural Research

Building Defined Mixed Cultures To Biodegrade Diverse Mixtures Of Chlorinated Solvents

EPA Grant Number: R828598C801
Subproject: this is subproject number 801 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R828598
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Gulf Coast HSRC (Lamar)
Center Director: Ho, Tho C.
Title: Building Defined Mixed Cultures To Biodegrade Diverse Mixtures Of Chlorinated Solvents
Investigators: Speitel, Gerald E. , Georgiou, George
Institution: University of Texas at Austin
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2002
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center (Lamar University) (1996)
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Targeted Research

Description:

Objective:

Chlorinated solvents are common ground water and soil contaminants at hazardous waste sites. Typically, mixtures of chlorinated solvents are observed, with most, if not all, components of the mixtures being recalcitrant to biodegradation. Development of biological treatment technologies for chlorinated solvents is of importance because, if successful, such technologies completely destroy the chemicals, providing an advantage over some competing physical-chemical technologies that merely transfer the chemicals from one media to another. Most chlorinated solvents pose special challenges in applying biological processes to their treatment. In particular, they cannot serve as a carbon and energy source for microbial growth. Rather, chlorinated solvents must be biodegraded by cometabolism, in which organisms grow on one chemical, typically added to the treatment stream, and use non-specific enzymes to biodegrade the target recalcitrant chemical. We have worked on the development of cometabolism-based biological treatment processes for many years, focusing both on identifying appropriate microbial cultures and on developing new bioreactor technologies specifically for cometabolism of chlorinated solvents. Our primary emphasis has been aerobic treatment of water streams contaminated with chlorinated ethenes (e.g., trichloroethylene [TCE]) because they are the most common contaminants.

1, 1, 1 -trichloroethane (TCA) also is a chlorinated solvent very commonly encountered in the environment. Unfortunately, TCA is not cometabolized at any appreciable rate by the organisms typically used to biodegrade chlorinated ethenes. Therefore, chlorinated solvent mixtures containing TCA are problematic for biological treatment. Fortunately, limited work over the past few years has shown that some organisms growing aerobically on propane or butane can cometabolize TCA. These organisms, however, do not cometabolize chlorinated ethenes and methanes nearly as rapidly as some methanotrophs, including the one we have worked with extensively (Methylosinus frichosporium OB3b). Therefore, the best approach for biodegrading chlorinated solvent mixtures containing TCA should be a defined mixed culture containing both methanotrophs and propane or butane degraders. We are now working with propane and butane degraders on another Center project, and a preliminary experiment with our butane degraders showed them to be capable of TCA cometabolism.

The primary goal of this proposed research is to extend our work with methanotrophic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents to mixtures that include TCA. Biodegradation of TCA will be accomplished by introducing a second organism to the culture, which will cometabolize TCA while the methanotrophs continue to target the other chlorinated solvents. We propose a three-year project to 1) screen various propane and butane degrading cultures for their ability to cometabolize TCA, and select one or two cultures for detailed study; 2) determine the kinetics of growth substrate metabolism for the selected culture(s), the extent of enzyme competition between TCA and the growth substrate, and the best environmental conditions for achieving maximum TCA degradation rates; 3) identify and demonstrate approaches for growing both organisms simultaneously and maintaining stable populations and cometabolic activity of both over time; and 4) demonstrate successful biodegradation of mixtures of chlorinated solvents including TCA in our hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system. Both contaminated water and air streams will be studied. Laboratory-scale experiments using techniques developed in our past research with methanotrophic cometabolism will be undertaken to achieve the four research objectives.

Supplemental Keywords:

Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Waste, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Environmental Chemistry, Chemicals, Bioremediation, Environmental Engineering, biodegradation, cometabolism, hazardous waste, aerobic cometabolism, TCE degradation, biochemistry, chlorinated solvents

Progress and Final Reports:
Final Report


Main Center Abstract and Reports:
R828598    Gulf Coast HSRC (Lamar)

Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R822721C529 Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints: Risk Based Remediation Using Bioremediation
R822721C552 Degradative Solidification/Stabilization Technology for Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
R822721C569 Treatment and Product Recovery: Supercritical Water Oxidation of Nylon Monomer Manufacturing Waste
R822721C620 Colloidal Fouling of Membranes: Implications in the Treatment of Textile Dye Wastes and Water Reuse
R822721C626 Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Chlorinated Organics
R822721C627 The Interaction of Microbial Activity and Zero Valent Iron Permeable Barrier Technology
R822721C630 Microbial Cometabolism of Recalcitrant Chemicals in Contaminated Air Streams
R822721C633 Catalyst Lifetime Studies for Chlorocarbon Steam Reforming
R822721C635 Electrokinetic/Surfactant-Enhanced Remediation of Hydrophobic Pollutants in Low Permeability Subsurface Environments
R822721C636 Transformation Reactions of Nitroaromatic and Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Surfaces: Enhancement of GAC Adsorption in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems
R822721C640 Environmentally Friendly Organic Synthesis in Supercritical Fluids
R822721C645 Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Model to Facilitate Risk-Based Corrective Action at Superfund Sites
R822721C651 Adjustable Biopolymer Chelators for Cadmium, Lead and Mercury
R822721C653 New Electrochemically Smart Catalysts for Hazardous Waste Management and Development of Capillary Electrophoresis for Analysis of their Products
R822721C655 Soil Sampling in South Alabama Oil Fields
R822721C659 Subsurface Contamination Site Characterization via a Computer-Aided Visual Tool
R822721C661 New Insoluble supports for Protein Immobilization for Use in Metalloprotein Affinity Metal Chromatography
R822721C663 Soil Remediation with Ultra-High-Efficiency Hydrocyclones
R822721C669 Solid Acid Catalyzed Alkylation in Supercritical Fluids
R822721C679 Regeneration/Reactivation of Carbon Adsorbents by Radio Frequency (RF) Induction Heating
R822721C687 Improved Halogen Resistance of Catalytic Oxidation
R822721C696 Phytoremediation and Bioremediation of Land Contaminated By PAHs, PCBs, and TNT
R822721C697 Fundamental and Kinetic Investigation of Sorbent Technology for Optimum Mercury Emission Control
R822721C700 Effects of Natural and Cyclic Variations on Contaminant Fate and Transport
R822721C703 Enhancement of DNAPL Dissolution Rates by Dechlorinating Anaerobes
R826694C620 Colloidal Fouling of Membranes: Implications in the Treatment of Textile Dye Wastes and Water Reuse
R826694C625 Enhanced Treatment of DNAPLs Contaminated Soils and Groundwater Using Biosurfactants: In-Situ Bioremediation
R826694C626 Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Chlorinated Wastes
R826694C627 The Interaction of Microbial Activity and Zero Valent Iron Permeable Barrier Technology
R826694C629 Biofiltration of BTEX in Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Remediation Off-Gas
R826694C630 Microbial Cometabolism of Recalcitrant Chemicals in Contaminated Air Streams
R826694C633 Catalyst Lifetime Studies for Chlorocarbon Steam Reforming
R826694C635 Electrokinetic/Surfactant-Enhanced Remediation of Hydrophobic Pollutants in Low Permeability Subsurface Environments
R826694C636 Transformation Reactions of Nitroaromatic and Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Surfaces: Enhancement of GAC Adsorption in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems
R826694C640 Environmentally Friendly Organic Synthesis in Supercritical Fluids
R826694C645 Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Model to Facilitate Risk-Based Corrective Action at Superfund Sites
R826694C651 Adjustable Biopolymer Chelators for Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury Remeidation
R826694C659 Subsurface Contamination Site characterization Via a Computer-Aided Visual Tool
R826694C661 New Insoluble supports for Protein Immobilization for Use in Metalloprotein Affinity Metal Chromatography
R826694C669 Solid Acid Catalyzed Alkylation in Supercritical Reaction Media
R826694C679 Regeneration and Reactivation of Carbon Adsorbents by Radio Frequency Induction Heating
R826694C696 Phytoremediation and Bioremediation of Land Contaminated By PAHs, PCBs, and TNT
R826694C697 Fundamental and Kinetic Investigation of Sorbent Technology for Optimum Mercury Emission Control
R826694C700 Effects of Natural Cyclic Variations on Contaminated Fate and Transport
R826694C703 Enhancement of DNAPL Dissolution Rates by Dechlorinating Anaerobes
R826694C705 A Pilot Plant for Producing Mixed Ketones from Waste Biomass
R826694C722 The Effects of an Oily-Phase on VOC Emissions from Industrial Wastewater
R826694C724 Mercury Removal from Stack Gas by Aqueous Scrubbing
R826694C725 Transport, Fate and Risk Implications of Environmentally Acceptable Endpoint Decisions
R826694C731 Development and Application of a Real-Time Optical Sensor for Atmospheric Formaldehyde
R826694C734 An Advanced System for Pollution Prevention in Chemical Complexes
R828598C001 Field Study Abstract: A Model of Ambient Air Pollution in Southeast Texas Using Artificial Neural Network Technology
R828598C002 Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors for Treating Water and Air Streams Contaminated with Chlorinated Solvents
R828598C003 Fugitive Emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants from On-Site Industrial Sewers
R828598C004 Biofiltration Technology Development
R828598C005 A Risk-Based Decision Analysis Approach for Aquifers Contaminated with DNAPLs
R828598C006 In-Situ Remediation for Contaminated Soils Using Prefabricated Vertical Drains
R828598C007 Membrane Technology Selection System for the Metal Finishing Industry
R828598C008 Sequential Environments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
R828598C009 Waste Minimization in the Magnetic Tape Industry: Waterborne Coating Formulations for Magnetic Tape Manufacture
R828598C010 Soil Remediation by Agglomeration with Petroleum Coke
R828598C011 Recovery of Dilute Phosphoric Acid in Waste Streams Using Waste Gas Ammonia: The Regenerative MAP/DAP Process
R828598C012 Stochastic Risk Assessment for Bioremediation
R828598C013 Selective Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Chelation in Supercritical Fluids
R828598C014 Optimization of Treatment Technologies for Detoxification of PCB Contaminated Soils
R828598C015 Wastewater Remediation by Catalytic Wet Oxidation
R828598C016 Permanence of Metals Containment in Solidified and Stabilized Wastes
R828598C017 Combustion Enhancement by Radial Jet Reattachment - Low Generation of Hazardous Gases and High Thermal Efficiency
R828598C018 A Process To Convert Industrial Biosludge and Paper Fines to Mixed Alcohol Fuels
R828598C019 Homogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
R828598C020 Ultrasonic Enhancement of the Removal of Heavy Metals
R828598C021 The Binding Chemistry and Leaching Mechanisms of Advanced Solidification/Stabilization Systems for Hazardous Waste Management
R828598C022 Development of an Air-Stripping and UV/H2O2 Oxidation Integrated Process To Treat a Chloro-Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Ground Water
R828598C023 A Comparative Study of Siting Opposition in Two Counties
R828598C024 Sonochemical Treatment of Hazardous Organic Compounds II: Process Optimization and Pathway Studies
R828598C025 Laser Diagnostics of the Combustion Process within a Rotary Kiln Incinerator
R828598C026 Use of Inorganic Ion Exchangers for Hazardous Waste Remediation
R828598C027 Kaolinite Sorbent for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Incinerated Lubricating Oils
R828598C028 Destruction of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Process Streams Using Catalytic Steam Reforming
R828598C029 Integrated Process Treatment Train (Bioremediation {Aerobic/Anaerobic} and Immobilization) for Texas Soils Contaminated with Combined Hazardous Wastes
R828598C030 Photo-Oxidation by H2O2/VisUV of Off-Gas Atmospheric Emissions from Industrial and Environmental Remediation Sources
R828598C031 Concentrated Halide Extraction and Recovery of Lead from Soil
R828598C032 Biodegradable Surfactant for Underground Chlorinated Solvent Remediation
R828598C033 A Software Guidance System for Choosing Analytical Subsurface Fate and Transport Models Including a Library of Computer Solutions for the Analytical Models
R828598C034 Hydrodynamic Modeling of Leachate Recirculating Landfill
R828598C035 Measurement of Oxygen Transfer Rate in Soil Matrices
R828598C036 Sorbent Technology for Multipollutant Control During Fluidized Bed Incineration
R828598C037 Pollution Prevention by Process Modification Using On-Line Optimization
R828598C038 Pollution Prevention by Process Modification
R828598C039 Water Solubility and Henry's Law Constant
R828598C040 Transferring Technical Information on Hazardous Substance Research by Publishing on the World Wide Web
R828598C041 Stress Protein Responses to Multiple Metal Exposure in Grass Shrimp
R828598C042 Life-Cycle Environmental Costing for Managing Pollution Prevention in the Chemical and Petroleum Refining Industries: A Cross-Border Approach
R828598C687 Improved Halogen Resistance of Catalytic Oxidation Through Efficient Catalyst Testing
R828598C696 Phytoremediation and Bioremediation of Land Contaminated By PAHs, PCBs, and TNT
R828598C697 Fundamental and Kinetic Investigation of Sorbent Technology for Optimum Mercury Emission Control
R828598C700 Effects of Natural Cyclic Variations on Contaminated Fate and Transport
R828598C703 Enhancement of DNAPL Dissolution Rates by Dechlorinating Anaerobes
R828598C705 A Pilot Plant for Producing Mixed Ketones from Waste Biomass
R828598C722 The Effects of an Oily-Phase on VOC Emissions from Industrial Wastewater
R828598C724 Mercury Removal from Stack Gas by Aqueous Scrubbing
R828598C725 Transport, Fate and Risk Implications of Environmentally Acceptable Endpoint Decisions
R828598C731 Development and Application of a Real Time Optical Sensor for Atmospheric Formaldehyde
R828598C734 An Advanced System for Pollution Prevention in Chemical Complexes
R828598C743 Field Demonstration of Ultrasound Enhancement of Permeable Treatment Walls
R828598C744 Optical Fibers Coated With Titania Membrane/UV-Generating Crystal in a Distributed-Light Photoreactor for VOC Oxidation
R828598C749 Characterization and Modeling of Indoor Particulate Contaminants In a Heavily Industrialized Community
R828598C753 Adsolubilization and Photocatalysis in a Semiconducting Monolithic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment
R828598C754 Remote Detection of Gas Emissions in Industrial Processes
R828598C759 Searching for Optimum Composition of Phosphogypsum: Fly ash: Cement Composites for Oyster Culch Materials
R828598C761 Development of a Phytologically-Based Biosorptive Water Treatment Process
R828598C766 Chlorinated Solvent Impact and Remediation Strategies for the Dry Cleaning Industry
R828598C769 Soil/Sediment Remediation by Hot Water Extraction Combined with In-Situ Wet Oxidation
R828598C771 Fluoracrylate Polymer Supported Ligands as Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Synthesis in Supercritical Fluids
R828598C774 The Feasibility of Electrophoretic Repair of Impoundment Leaks
R828598C777 Surfactant Enhanced Photo-oxidation of Wastewaters
R828598C778 Stationary Power Generation Via Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Response to Pollution and Global Warming
R828598C786 Photocatalytic Recovery of Sulfur and Hydrogen From Hydrogen Sulfide
R828598C787 Biosurfactant Produced from Used Vegetable Oil for removal of Metals From Wastewaters and Soils
R828598C789 Genetic Engineering of Enzymatic Cyanide Clearance
R828598C791 Characterizing the Intrinsic Remediation of MTBE at Field Sites
R828598C799 Simultaneous Water Conservation/Recycling/Reuse and Waste Reduction in Semiconductor Manufacturing
R828598C801 Building Defined Mixed Cultures To Biodegrade Diverse Mixtures Of Chlorinated Solvents
R828598C802 Engineering of Nanocrystal Based Catalytic Materials for Hydroprocessing of Halogenated Organics
R828598C807 Commercial Demonstration of Hydrogen Peroxide Injection to Control NOx Emissions from Combustion Sources
R828598C809 Evaluating Source Grouting and ORC for Remediating MTBE Sites
R828598C810 Application of Total Cost Assessment To Process Design In the Chemical Industry
R828598C846 Quantitative Demonstration of Source-Zone Bioremediation in A Field-Scale Experimental Controlled Release System

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The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Conclusions drawn by the principal investigators have not been reviewed by the Agency.

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