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  • Biosolids Technology Fact Sheet: Belt Filter Press (PDF) (7 pp, 90KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of belt filter presses to remove water from liquid wastewater residuals. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-057).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Biosolids Technology Fact Sheet: Land Application of Biosolids (PDF) (9 pp, 538KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes the recycling of biosolids through land application, or the addition of wastewater solids to soil to replenish the organic and nutrient composition of the soil. The document outlines types of biosolid injection equipment, environmental impacts of land application, and the advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of this application (EPA 832-F-00-064).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Collection Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Sewers, Lift Station (PDF) (8 pp, 75KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes wastewater lift stations, designed to move wastewater from lower to higher elevations. The document discusses the key elements of lift stations, as well as advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-073).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Combined Sewer Overflow Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection (PDF) (10 pp, 1,875KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of chlorine to disinfect discharged waters from combined sewer overflows. Includes information on advantages and disadvantages of this process, as well as applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-99-034).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Aerobic Treatment (PDF) (8 pp, 54KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes aerobic wastewater treatment systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-031).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Evapotranspiration (PDF) (6 pp, 87KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes evapotranspiration wastewater treatment systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-033).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Low-Pressure Pipe Systems (PDF) (7 pp, 59KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes low-pressure pipe systems for wastewater treatment and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-99-076).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Mound Systems (PDF) (7 pp, 201KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes mound systems for wastewater treatment and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-99-074).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septage Treatment/Disposal (PDF) (7 pp, 52KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes septage treatment and disposal and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-068).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic System Tanks (PDF) (4 pp, 168KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes the septic system tank as part of a wastewater treatment system and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-040).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Leaching Chamber (PDF) (7 pp, 83KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes septic tank leaching chambers for wastewater treatment and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-044).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Systems for Large Flow Application (PDF) (10 pp, 504KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes septic tank systems for large-flow facilities and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-079).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank-Soil Absorption Systems (PDF) (8 pp, 74KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes septic system tanks and soil absorption systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-075).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Small Diameter Gravity Sewer (PDF) (7 pp, 66KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes small-diameter gravity sewers in a wastewater treatment system and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-038).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Types of Filters (PDF) (4 pp, 37KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes filters for septic systems. The primary purpose of improving the quality of the effluent from a septic tank system is to provide a cleaner effluent and, in some cases, to address local environmental conditions. Effluent filtering might be necessary because of site constraints, regulations or other limiting factors. Sand filters in various configurations are one of many traditional technologies applied to decentralized systems. These filters are located at the effluent side of the septic tank to remove solids (EPA 832-F-00-034).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Decentralized Treatment Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Control Panels (PDF) (5 pp, 735KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes control panels as part of some wastewater treatment systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-02-006).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Decentralized Treatment Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Recirculating Sand Filters (PDF) (7 pp, 129KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes recirculating sand filters for wastewater treatment and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-99-079).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Decentralized Treatment Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Polishing (PDF) (4 pp, 91KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes septic system tank polishing and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-02-021).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Aerated, Partial Mix Lagoons (PDF) (5 pp, 62KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of aerated, partial-mix lagoons for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-02-008).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Ammonia Stripping (PDF) (4 pp, 46KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes a desorption process for lowering the ammonia content of a wastewater stream by adding lime or caustic agents. Describes the process and two types of stripping towers, and provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-019).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Anaerobic Lagoons (PDF) (6 pp, 147KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes the use of a lagoon or deep earthen pit in which anaerobic conditions are prevalent and there is a favorable environment for the performance of methanogenic bacteria, used to pretreat high-strength industrial wastewater and municipal wastewater. Provides information on the process, microbiology, advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of the system (EPA 832-F-02-009).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Bacterial Source Tracking (PDF) (12 pp, 83KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses new methodologies to determine the sources of fecal pathogen contamination in environmental water samples. Presents examples of applications of bacterial source tracking to Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development and implementation. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, and costs of this technology (EPA 832-F-02-010).
    Date Published: 05/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Chemical Precipitation (PDF) (8 pp, 59KB)

  • Fact sheet that provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of widely used technologies for removing organic substances, metals and other inorganics from wastewater in a process of precipitation, or settling out these substances from solution (EPA 832-F-00-018).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection (PDF) (7 pp, 1,000KB)

  • Fact sheet on disinfection, one of the primary mechanisms for the inactivation or destruction of pathogenic organisms. Contains information on how to use chlorine as a disinfectant for municipal wastewater. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-062).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Dechlorination (PDF) (7 pp, 54KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses ways to remove residual chlorine from disinfected wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of such processes (EPA 832-F-00-022).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Facultative Lagoons (PDF) (4 pp, 98KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses facultative stabilization ponds or lagoons used in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, as well as common modifications to the lagoons. Provides information on the limitations, advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of such lagoons (EPA 832-F-02-014).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Fine Bubble Aeration (PDF) (6 pp, 1,000KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes aeration as a wastewater treatment process and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. (EPA 832-F-99-065)
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Free Water Surface Wetlands (PDF) (8 pp, 88KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the composition, design goals and use of constructed free water surface wetlands for wastewater treatment. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-024).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption and Regeneration (PDF) (7 pp, 76KB)

  • Fact sheet on the use of GAC adsorption for advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater. Technology can be used to absorb small quantities of remaining soluble organic and inorganic compounds. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-017).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: High-Efficiency Toilets (PDF) (5 pp, 43KB)

  • Fact sheet designed to answer questions regarding national water use standards for high-efficiency toilets, offer consumer tips, and discuss issues related to performance, limitations, and costs of the new technologies in this area (EPA 832-F-00-047).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: In-Plant Pump Stations (PDF) (9 pp, 78KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of in-plant pump stations at wastewater treatment plant sites, specifically centrifugal pumps for raw wastewater and effluent pumping applications. Describes key elements of pump stations, various pump station configurations and types of pump controls, and physical requirements for the operations of the pumps, as well as advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-069).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Intermittent Sand Filters (PDF) (7 pp, 84KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes intermittent sand filters as wastewater treatment systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-067).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Oxidation Ditches

  • Fact sheet that discusses the oxidation ditch treatment system, a "racetrack-type" system for wastewater treatment that uses long solids retention times to remove biodegradable organics from wastewater. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of such systems. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-013).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Ozone Disinfection (PDF) (7 pp, 40KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes ozone disinfection for wastewater treatment. Provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-063).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Package Plants (PDF) (12 pp, 75KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes common types of premanufactured treatment facilities designed for wastewater treatment in small communities or on individual properties. Provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of each type of facility (EPA 832-F-00-016).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Pipe Construction and Materials (PDF) (5 pp, 145KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes four basic types of pipe used in wastewater collection systems. Provides information on the composition, methods of production, cost, and applicability of each type, as well as the beneficial properties and disadvantages of using the various types of pipes. Categories of pipe are discussed, primarily those composed of ductile iron, concrete, plastic, and vitrified clay, as well as modifications that can be made to such pipes to improve performance (EPA 832-F-00-068).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Rapid Infiltration Land Treatment (PDF) (6 pp, 100KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses rapid infiltration, also called aquifer treatment of wastewater, through the use of the soil ecosystem by constructing shallow basins in deep deposits. As wastewater moves through the soil matrix, toxic organics are degraded or absorbed. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-02-12).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Rock Media Polishing Filter for Lagoons (PDF) (4 pp, 167KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes the use of submerged beds of rock as filters to remove algae from lagoon effluents. Discusses common configurations for rock media polishing and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of this process (EPA 832-F-02-023).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Screening and Grit Removal (PDF) (11 pp, 376KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses aspects of systems for wastewater treatment that remove large objects and grit in the preliminary stages of influent wastewater treatment, including devices and techniques involved in screening, comminuting and grinding, and grit removal. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of these processes (EPA 832-F-03-011).
    Date Published: 06/01/2003

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Sequencing Batch Reactors (PDF) (9 pp, 99K)

  • Fact sheet on the sequencing batch reactor, a fill-and-draw activated sludge system for wastewater treatment (EPA 932-F-99-073).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Sewers, Force Main (PDF) (8 pp, 163KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes force mains, or pipelines used to convey wastewater under pressure to a discharge point. Discusses key elements of force mains, common modifications to enhance performance, selection and design criteria, applicability, advantages and disadvantages, operation and maintenance, costs, and contact information (EPA 832-F-00-071).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Sewers, Pressure (PDF) (9 pp, 246KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of two main types of pressure sewers systems for use in rural and semirural communities where conventional gravity wastewater collection systems would be costly (EPA 832-F-02-006).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Slow Rate Land Treatment (PDF) (5 pp, 179KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of standard irrigation methods to accomplish controlled application of partially treated wastewater to a vegetated land surface. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance and costs (EPA 832-F-02-012).
    Date Published: 09/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: The Living Machine (PDF) (7 pp, 353KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes an emerging wastewater treatment technology that uses a series of tanks supporting vegetation and a variety of organisms, and that incorporates the same processes used in conventional biological treatment systems. Provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs of this system (EPA 832-F-02-025).
    Date Published: 10/01/2002

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Trickling Filter Nitrification (PDF) (9 pp, 148KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of trickling filter systems in a process of biological nitrification to significantly reduce nitrogen levels in wastewater by using aerobic attached growth reactors suitable for the removal of ammonia nitrogen. The document describes the chemical processes involved, factors influencing the kinetics of nitrification, advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs involved in the use of such systems (EPA 832-F-00-015).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Trickling Filters (PDF) (7 pp, 74KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the use of trickling filter systems in a biological process of water treatment that uses aerobic microorganisms attached to a medium to degrade and remove organic material from wastewater. Provides information on advantages and disadvantages, applicability, performance, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-014).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Ultraviolet Disinfection (PDF) (7 pp, 93K)

  • Fact sheet that describes ultraviolet disinfection as a wastewater treatment system. Provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-064).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Wetlands: Subsurface Flow (PDF) (9 pp, 105KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes subsurface flow wetlands which are specifically designed to treat or polish some types of wastewater and are typically constructed as a bed or channel containing appropriate media. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-00-023).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000
  • Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet: Compositing Toilets (PDF) (7 pp, 1,000KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes composting toilets and discusses their applicability and advantages and disadvantages. Also available in Spanish (EPA 832-F-99-066).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999
  • Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet: High-Efficiency Toilets (PDF) (5 pp, 43KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes high-efficiency toilets as water-efficient wastewater treatment systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-00-047).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000

  • Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet: Incinerating Toilets (PDF) (5 pp, 58KB)

  • Fact sheet that describes incinerating toilets as water-efficient wastewater treatment systems and provides information on technologies, advantages and disadvantages, design criteria, operation and maintenance, and costs (EPA 832-F-99-072).
    Date Published: 09/01/1999

  • Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet: Oil Recirculating Toilets (PDF) (4 pp, 41KB)

  • Fact sheet that discusses the advantages and disadvantages, performance, design, operation and maintenance, and costs of toilets that do not require water to operate but instead use mineral oil or other nonaqueous media (EPA 832-F-00-048).
    Date Published: 09/01/2000


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